Server racks are also known as rack cabinets, rack enclosures, equipment racks. Typically have front and rear doors that are perforated or solid. The fully enclosed server rack mount cabinet is the most expensive rack type due to the amount of metal use.
The perforated doors allow for proper ventilation of the electronics in the rackmount cabinet. The current standard for ventilation is a minimum of 63% perforated on both the front and rear doors of the rack mount cabinet. Filler panels are typically used to help minimize air recirculation. If the rack cabinet has a solid door, then additional equipment must be installed in the rack to provide adequate ventilation. Racks with solid doors typically have fans in the top and air enters the rack from the floor.
The fully enclosed server rack provides the highest level of security for the equipment. Typically the front and rear doors have a lock to prevent unauthorized access to the equipment. The side panels of the rack mount cabinet can be easily removed in most models which allows access to cabling or power distribution units which are sometimes installed in the Zero-U space in the sides of rack cabinets.
Most modern rack enclosures have adjustable EIA rails for equipment attachment. These rails have mounting holes on a pattern by EIA-310. Racks have one of three hole types: square, round, or threaded. Most racks have adjustable rails, allowing the mounting depth and equipment position to be adjusted.
Rack cabinets are more difficult to route cabling due to limited access. Since the racks have rear doors, wires are typically routed out the top to overhead trays, or the wires are routed out the bottom and below a raised floor. Most racks have limited space in the sides to allow cabling from the front to rear.